Welcome to LEDnetics.com, your reference LED store for all lighting and LED devices. In electronics the LED (abbreviation of Light Emitting Diode) is an optoelectronic device that exploits the ability of some semiconductor materials to produce photons through a phenomenon of spontaneous emission when crossed by an electric current. In lighting technology, the LED is a high-efficiency technology that guarantees excellent energy savings.

The commercial strength of these devices is based on their ability to achieve high brightness (many times greater than that of tungsten filament lamps), low price, high efficiency and reliability (the life of an LED is one to two orders of magnitude higher than that of classic light sources, especially under conditions of mechanical stress). LEDs work at low voltage, have high switching speed and their construction technology is compatible with that of silicon integrated circuits.

The first LED was developed in 1962 by Nick Holonyak Jr.. In 2014 the Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to Isamu Akasaki and Hiroshi Amano from the University of Nagoya and Shūji Nakamura from the University of California, Santa Barbara for research on blue light LED. In the 1990s, LEDs were produced with ever higher efficiency and in an ever-increasing range of colors, also producing white light. At the same time, the amount of light emitted has increased to levels that are competitive with ordinary light bulbs.

Use in lighting

LEDs are increasingly used in the lighting industry to replace some traditional light sources. Their use in domestic lighting, thus replacing incandescent, halogen or compact fluorescent lamps (commonly called energy-saving because they have a higher yield), is now possible with remarkable results, achieved thanks to the innovative techniques developed in the field.

At the beginning of the research, the luminous efficiency, quantity of light/consumption (lm/W), was calculated in the minimum ratio of 3 to 1, then it has improved a lot. The limit of the first devices suitable to be used in this type of application was the insufficient amount of light emitted (luminous flux expressed in lumens). This problem was overcome with the latest generation models, combining the increase in efficiency with the technique of having die matrices in the same package connected in series and parallel or making the matrix directly in the substrate of the device. The efficiency of current devices for professional and civil use is more than 120 lm/W, but it drops to around 80 lm/W in warmer light devices. For example the Cree CXA3050 has Ra>90 and 2700K. A 60 W incandescent lamp powered at 220V, emits a luminous flux of about 650 lumens.

As a comparison, an incandescent lamp has a luminous efficiency of about 10-19 lm/W, while a halogen lamp about 12-20 lm/W and a linear fluorescent lamp about 50-110 lm/W. A lower ease of use in functional lighting compared to traditional lamps is constituted by the characteristics of power supply and dissipation, which strongly affect the light output and duration over time. However, it becomes difficult to identify direct relationships between the various sizes, between which also comes into play a further parameter, namely the beam angle of light emission, which can vary from about 4 degrees to over 120 degrees, however, can be modified through appropriate lenses placed frontally.

LED manufacturers are manufacturers of semiconductors, silicon factories, while bulbs are mainly produced by other manufacturers. There is, therefore, a certain delay between the date of placing a new LED device on the market and the availability on the market of a bulb that uses it.

The advantages of LEDs from a lighting point of view are:

  1. Operating time (high emitting LEDs reach about 50,000 hours with a loss of luminous flux of 10% max);
  2. reduced maintenance-replacement costs;
  3. high efficiency (when compared to incandescent and halogen lamps) Light without IR and UV components (high efficiency: no part of the energy transformed into light is outside the visible spectrum);
  4. easy realization of efficient plastic optics;
  5. flexibility of light spot installation;
  6. possibility of a strong spot effect (near-point source);
  7. safe operation because of very low voltage (normally between 3 and 24 Vdc);
  8. cold start (down to -40 °C) without problems;
  9. absence of mercury;
  10. possibility to create luminaires of new shape due to the reduced dimensional impact;
  11. possibility to adjust the luminous intensity (only on some models);
  12. less heat generated in the environment compared to other lighting technologies.

Bestselling Products

 

Tenmiro 65.6ft Led Strip Lights, Ultra Long RGB 5050 Color Changing LED Light Strips Kit with 44 Keys Ir Remote Led Lights for Bedroom, Kitchen, Home Decoration

  • Ultra Long Strip Lights: 65.6ft led strip lights are long enough to reach around your entire room and light the whole place up, cuttable design allows you to adjust the length of led lights whatever you like, for bedroom, living room, cabinet, party, christmas, etc
  • Multi Color and Diy: Led lights colorful and durable, the brightness of the lights strip can be adjusted and offer millions different colors and 8 lighting modes(jump, fade, flash etc) by 44keys remote
  • Easy Installation: Complete led light strip kit Including 4 rolls of 16.4ft led light strips, power adapter, 44keys remote Control, controller, instruction manual, led strip lights installation accessories(4 pin connectors, gapless solderless connectors, back adhesive hooks), no need for other devices, self adhesive tape easy to install
  • Cuttable and Linkable: The led lights can be easily cut and linked with other strip led lights, which can be cut every 3 leds along the cutting marks, you can also customize the length of the led lights, while arrows of the lights should be faced to each other when connecting, if using solderless connecto then while '+12V' should be faced to each other when connecting
  • Multiple Scenes Available: Rgb led strip lights is a suitable house ornament, transforms your home, kitchen, ceiling, back of tv, desk, stairs, bar and more with color changing lights
 

50ft Led Lights for Bedroom, Keepsmile APP Control Music Sync Color Changing Led Light Strips Led Strip Lights with Remote for Room Home Decoration

  • Smart App&Music sync:RGB LED strip lights 50ft can freely control thousands of colors through 44-key infrared remote control or smartphone APP.Adjustable brightness and multiple lighting modes to fit room mood.Built-in sensitivity adjustable microphone,the led strip lights dances to the ambient sound;make your party up to the high peak
  • Timer mode: The bluetooth strip light has a smart Timer mode,Pre-setting the appropriate time and suitable color to make it turn on /off automatically,it can be used as an lights alarm clock,you wake up in romantic lighting
  • Easy Installation: LED light strips self-adhesive tape can firmly adhere to any dry and smooth surface,solve the problem of falling light strips; We recommend you test the lights before installation.(Note:Before sticking the light strip, please confirm its position,Avoid secondary pasting)
  • Cuttable and linkable: You can customize the length of the LED lights, cutting every 3 LEDs along the cutting mark.You can also use a specific connector to extend the light bar to other places
  • Widely use: LED strip lights is long enough;Easily decorate places like bedroom,ceiling,kitchen,stairsparty,wedding,windows,living room, party, back of tv, bar.Suitable for holiday parties,like Christmas,Halloween and Easter
 

40ft Led Strip Lights Keepsmile RGB Color Changing Led Light Strips SMD 5050 LED Strips with Remote Led Lights for Bedroom Kitchen Home Decoration

  • Multi Color and Diy: Led lights colorful and durable, the brightness of the lights strip can be adjusted and offer 20 different colors and 6 lighting modes(jump, fade, flash etc) and 2 speed modes (quick, slow)
  • Upgrade Strong Self-Adhesive: The strip lights have upgrade adhesive so they stick very well on the dry & smooth surface; led lights more easy to install and connect. (please test the led strip lights before installation)
  • Cuttable and linkable: Cuttable design allows you to adjust the length of light strip however you like, if you don't need such a long lights, you can be cutted between every 3 LEDs. Also could extral connectors to extend the lights for other places
  • Quick and Easy Installation, fully equipped accessories, include LED strips, a AC Power Adapter, a IR remote Control, a controller, a Instruction Manual, a led strip lights installation accessories bag, no need for any other devices
  • Multiple Scenes Available: Rgb led strip lights is a suitable house ornament, transforms your home, kitchen, ceiling, back of tv, desk, stairs, bar and more with color changing lights
 

DAYBETTER Led Strip Lights 32.8ft 5050 RGB 300 LEDs Color Changing Lights Strip for Bedroom, Desk, Home Decoration, with Remote and 12V Power Supply

  • Strong self adhesive: The led strip lights has a stronge self adhesive so they stick very well on TVs, cars, cabinets and walls; Please test the led strip lights before installation, every roll lights has one connector to link with controller box, so they should be attached in parallel, not in series
  • Colorful and durable: The infrared remote can adjust multiple colors, including rgb, white, 16 other colors and their brightness; With 6 dynamic modes (auto, flash, jump3, jump7, fade3, fade7) and 2 speed modes (quick, slow) by remote, you can make the light strip show varieties of different color changes; Use the DIY buttons to save 6 colors if you like
  • Cuttable and linkable: Our 32.8 feet led lights strip have 300 leds, it can be cut every 3 LEDs along the cutting marks if you don't need such a long lights or you could extral connectors to extend the lights for your bedroom, TV, desk, computer indoor
  • Remote contol: You can use the infrared remote control to remotely control the light strip to suit the mood of the room easily; You can set it according to different scenes until you are satisfied
  • Widely use: The led lights are suitable for bedroom, kitchen, cabinet, car, living room, party or wedding
 

50ft Led Strip Lights Smart Sync Music Led Lights for Bedroom Home Decoration, APP Control

  • Music sync color changing lights: The sensitivity of the microphone is adjustable and the colour of the light changes to the beat of the music or the sound of the microphone during the music, with 4 music modes to choose from, perfect for decorating for weddings, birthdays, Christmas, Halloween, parties and other festivals and events.
  • App Control Light Strips Kit: Led lights colorful and durable, the brightness of the lights strip can be adjusted. Controlling the Led strip lights via App, remote control and controller buttons. With the App, you can choose to control 16 million colors, can experience the timing function, 28 Dynamic modes can be chosen, you can also Diy your unique color
  • Cuttable and linkable: Cuttable design allows you to adjust the length of light strip however you like, if you don't need such a long lights, you can be cutted between every 3 LEDs. Also could extral connectors to extend the lights for other places
  • Quick and Easy Installation:Lightweight, safe and power saving,fully equipped accessories, include LED strips, a AC Power Adapter, a IR remote Control, a controller, a Instruction Manual, a led strip lights installation accessories bag, no need for any other devices
  • Widely used: RGB colour changing led light strips are perfect for home decoration. These led strip lights give a warm and romantic atmosphere to dining rooms, bedrooms, staircases, doorways, computers, desks, corners, bars, meeting rooms and living rooms, making you feel relaxed and happy.
 

MINGER LED Strip Lights 16.4ft, RGB Color Changing LED Lights for Home, Kitchen, Room, Bedroom, Dorm Room, Bar, with IR Remote Control, 5050 LEDs, DIY Mode

  • Multicolor changing: the RGB LED strip lights kit has not only RGB(Red, Green, Blue), 16 multicolored options, but also DIY selection
  • Remote control: 44-key IR remote allows you to choose colors, adjustable brightness and multiple lighting modes to fit room mood. (remote range: 10m)
  • Bright LED Lights: it features 150 bright 5050 LEDs that easily light up a room, bedroom, dorm room, kitchen countertop. Suitable for birthday party, home gathering
  • Easy to install: with back adhesive and flexible strip design, it can stick on any dry and flat surface. Note: use the packaged adapter to meet working power requirement
  • Notice for using: please do not roll up when using it to avoid whole strip getting overheated. The strip is non-waterproof for indoor use only
 

Led Lights Smart Led Strip Lights 32.8ft, Jadisi 5050 RGB Color Changing Strip Lights Remote Control, Led Lights for Bedroom, Kitchen, Home Decoration

  • Led strip lights 32.8ft smart control: This smart led strip lights is designed with 3 ways, multiple modes smartphone bluetooth app control, 24 keys remote control, 3 buttons control box. You can freely choose to control 16 million colors and 28 dynamic modes, like flashing, breathing, strobe, gradient, cool etc.. you can also DIY your unique color.
  • Timing Function: With the APP you can experience the timing function, pre setting the appropriate time and suitable color to make it turn on/off automatically. Led strip lights have memory function, When the strips are used again, they remember the last mode settings.
  • App-music and mic mode: Control the led strip lights via the bluetooth app. the led lights controller built-in adjustable microphone and the blluetooth app has a smart music mode. You can create romance, party ambiance. lights color will change with the music beats or your microphone.
  • User-friendly & widely application: music sync led tape light have a strong self-adhesive. you can light up your bedroom ,room,walls,kitchen,tvs,cabinets,cars,living room,weddings,birthday & school party, christmas. You can paste it on any occasion you want. note:please ensure to paste it onto any clean,dry and flat surface.
  • What You Get: 1 Roll of 32.8ft/10m led light strips,1 x remote control receiver,1 x 24 key remote control (batter is included),1x AC/DC adapter,1 x user manual and some accessories! Any Question, Please click GET HELP WITH ORDER under your order ID or contact us via email, We will give you a satisfactory solution.
 

Daybetter 5050 RGB Infrared Remote Control Color Changing 50ft Led Strip Lights

  • Strong self-adhesive: Strong self-adhesive makes the lights strip easy to mount to your walls, under your bed or cabinets, behind your TV, and pretty much anywhere you’d like
  • Remote control: You can easily use the remote to adjust the colors and brightness to suit the mood of the room
  • Colorful light: Rgb, white, 16 other colors, adjustable color temperature and dimmable light; Use the diy buttons to save 6 colors if you like
  • Cuttable and linkable: Can be easily cut every 3 leds along the cutting marks, or extended up, to the size to you like; Extensions are not included
  • Widely use: Easy to set on most indoor surfaces, such as bedroom, kitchen, cabinet, car, living room, party, or wedding
 

Daybetter 5050 RGB 600 LEDs Flexible Color Changing Remote Control Led Strip Lights - 65.6ft

  • Long led lights for bedroom enough to decore your entire room; You don't need to connect additional light strips with connectors to adjust the lenght whatever you like; Long led lights for bedroom enough to decore your room; Contains 600 leds, brighter and better quality
  • Multicolor changing: You can easily adjust rgb, white, 16 other colors and their brightness; With 6 dynamic modes (auto, flash, jump3, jump7, fade3, fade7) and 2 speed modes (quick, slow) by 44keys remote, you can make the led light strips show varieties of different color changes; Use the diy buttons to save 6 colors if you like
  • Remote contol: Using the 44-key infrared remote control, you can easily use the remote control to adjust the led strip lights color and brightness to suit the mood of the room
  • Cuttable and linkable: The lights strip can be easily cut every 3 leds along the cutting marks; You can link it with other strip led lights by additional connectors
  • Easy to install and use: With strong adhesive and flexible design, the strip lights can stick on any dry and flat surface; Suitable for decorating your bedroom, living room, ceiling, upstairs, kitchen, back of tv, desk
 

12 Pack 4 Inch 5CCT Ultra-Thin LED Recessed Ceiling Light with Junction Box, 2700K-5000K Selectable, 10W Eqv 70W, Dimmable Can-Killer Downlight, 700LM High Brightness - ETL

  • Top Rated 4 Inch 5CCT Slim LED Downlight with Junction Box
  • 5 CCT: 2700K, 3000K, 3500K, 4000K, 5000K, 5 color temperature selectable, no need to worry about what color temperature to buy, eliminates the hassle of returning or exchange products due to inappropriate color temperature.
  • IC Rated: Amico's canless LED recessed light is IC rated, which is permitted to be in contact with insulations in ceilings, meaning the junction box is thermally protected. It only requires as small as 2 inches ceiling spaces, fits various ceilings, and joists. It won't cause a fire in the roof or overhead joist space.
  • High Brightness: The 4inch slim downlights use the world's leading LED chips with higher lumens and lower power. 700LM consumes 10 Watts, which equals to 70W halogen lamp, saving you up to 90% in energy costs.
  • Amico Benefits: 5-Year Warranty! The whole Amico's recessed lighting is certified by ETL of a high standard.
 

100 Pieces Clear LED Light Emitting Diodes Bulb LED Lamp, 5 mm (Multicolor)

  • 5 mm LED lamp assorted kit: contains 100 LEDs of 10 colors (yellow, orange, emerald green, blue, white, red, green, warm white, purple and colorful flash)
  • Head type: water drop shape round and clear heads; Forward voltage: R/ Y/ G/ O 1.8-2.0 V; B/ W/ WW/ E/ P 3.0-3.2 V; C 3.0-3.4 V; Max. Current: 20 mA
  • Application: not only can they be applied to industrial segment, but also use in some students' experiment, school science, little LEDs are good for doing projects
  • Good repair replacement: the mini diodes are convenient for DIY and repair equipment and electrical appliances, circuit unit; You can use these to make LED glow stick
  • Mini LED diodes with bright light: they are very bright and vibrant colors make them look beautiful at night; You can assemble different color LED diodes as you want
 

Govee 32.8ft Color Changing LED Strip Lights, Bluetooth LED Lights with App Control, Remote, Control Box, 64 Scenes and Music Sync Lights for Bedroom, Room, Kitchen, Party, 2 Rolls of 16.4ft

  • Triple the Control: Take control of your LED lights with the Govee Home app, the remote, or control box. With a stable bluetooth connection, you can change colors, power the lights on/off, or adjust brightness within a 10m/32.8ft control range.
  • Light Up Your Music: The built-in, sensitive mic allows you to sync the LED lights to your favorite music. Having a weekend party? Jazz it up with color-changing lights that dance to the rhythm of any song.
  • Customize Your Lighting: With the DIY mode, via the Govee Home app, you can personalize light effects to your liking. Choose from 16 million colors and reinvent your bedroom, kitchen, and living room decor with ease.
  • Multiple Scene Options: The LED color changing lights feature 64 scenes modes, easily transforming your space to match your mood or indoor activities. Select Dating to creat atmosphere for your dinners or Film when enjoying a movie night.
  • Setup in Seconds: Simply attach the strip lights to a clean, dry surface using the adhesive. For extra security, use the provided support clips. You can also trim the lights to fit your specific design. (Note: 4-pin connectors not included).
 

50ft Bluetooth LED Strip Lights, Music Sync 5050 LED Light Strip RGB Color Changing LED Lights Strip with Phone Remote, LED Lights for Bedroom Kitchen TV Party TIKTOK DIY (APP+Remote +Mic)

  • APP and IR remote control : There are 2 ways to control LED strip lights: IR remote and smart app. The 24-key IR remote comes with 12 preset colors and 4 dynamic function keys, SIMPLE to use. The APP has rich functions in 5 modes: Color Wheel/Music/Mic/Style/Timing.
  • 50ft LONG Strip, Excellent Ambience Light : 2 rolls of 25ft led strip lights are long enough to reach around one room and light it up. Cuttable and linkable design allows you to adjust the length of strip as you like(max to 25ft for single strip). You can cut the strip along the cutting mark to get desired length. And later you can link them again by specific 4-pin connector. ( 4-pin led strip connectors are NOT included. You can buy some if need)
  • Music Sync Lighting : APP sync makes your phone a best sound source to control strip lights with the same beat. Deeply optimized ultra low delay from phone to light. You can put phone anywhere to collect sound.
  • Set Up in minutes : Very simple installation. Just connect the parts and install to where you want. Upgraded self-adhesive tape makes it easy to stick on clean, dry surface. Just follow instructions on manual and you can finish in minutes. We recommend you test the lights before installation. Note that it's NOT waterproof and is designed for indoor use only. [Non-Waterproof]
  • 100% Satisfaction Service and warranty : Our professional and warm service team are always ready to provide 100% Satisfaction Service with 24 hours quick response. TJOY provides 1 year standard warranty for the product.
 

QZYL 75ft LED Lights for Bedroom, RGB LED Strip Lights for Living Room, Party Decor with Dimmable Lighting, Bright Adjustable Colors, and 8 Lighting Modes, Adhesive Backing

  • Multipurpose LED Light Strips – Our ultra-long 75 feet RGB strip lights feature 405 LED nodes that can be used to light up a bedroom, computer desk, kitchen, living room mantle, or other personal space with soft, beautiful, customizable lighting
  • Fun, Interactive DIY Customization – QZYL bright LED strip lights feature 16 million different color combinations, 8 lighting modes like flash, fade, and jump, and adjustable brightness levels to create a more personal lighting experience
  • Quick-Adjust Brightness Levels – Using the 44-key remote our LED light strips not only let you change colors and lighting patterns, but you can adjust the brightness from 1% to 100%, which allows for a more relaxing, energetic, or vibrant ambiance
  • Party, Holiday, or Everyday Use – These long RGB strip lights can be used for adding light to your bedroom space, creating a warm glow along your kitchen cabinets, or simply dressing up a holiday party at work or Christmas event in your living room
  • Simple Peel and Stick Application – Our high-quality LED lights feature an adhesive backing and flexible strip design that makes it easier to stick them to almost any clean, dry, flat surface. And they can be powered via power adapter
 

Bathebright led Strip Lights 16.4ft, RGB Color Changing for Bedroom, Room, Kitchen, Ceiling with 44 Keys Remote Control

  • Color Changing: This led lights strip has 20 colors, 8 lights changing modes, 6 DIY settings
  • Remote Control: The rgb lights come with 44 keys remote, you can adjust the brightness and lighting modes and the speeds easily
  • Strong Adhesive: The strip lights with strong adhesive , just peel off the back layer and stick to the clean and dry surface firmly
  • Where to Use: The lights strip can be used in bedroom, back of TV, kitchen, door, under beds
  • Packing List: 1x roll 16.4 feet led strip lights, 1x 12v power supply, 1x remote control, 1x controller box, 10x fixing clips, 1x instructions manual
 

Fahren H11/H9/H8 LED Headlight Bulbs, 60W 10000 Lumens Super Bright LED Headlights Conversion Kit 6500K Cool White IP68 Waterproof, Pack of 2

  • 300% Brighter Than Halogen Top Automotive Grade LED chips with 60W, 10,000LM per pair, 6500K cool white. Super focused beam pattern design provides wider and farther lighting range which is 3 times brighter than your original halogen bulb.
  • Over 5,0000 Hours Lifespan Whole aviation aluminum body, unique hollow carved heat sink design and 1,2000RPM turbo cool fan provide super cooling ability, which ensures a longer lifespan up to 5,0000 hours.
  • 10 Minutes Easy Installation Almost 1:1 mini design same as halogen, perfectly fit into your housing and factory sockets without any modification, just plug and play.
  • CAN bus Ready for 98% Vehicles Our bulbs work with 98% of vehicle's computer system without error, while some sensitive models of Ford, Jeep, Dodge, Ram, Volvo, Lexus, Chrysler, Mini and etc may require additional CAN bus decoder to be installed.
  • Note The filter system may not be 100% accurate or up to date, please check your owner's manual or the part number on your original bulbs to confirm the bulb size. Refer to "how to pick the right bulb size" in our Product Description.
 
Dimmable A21 LED Bulb, 150 Watt Equivalent, Warm White 3000K, 2600LM, UL Listed, E26 Standard Base, Damp Rated, Super Bright Light Bulbs, 4 Pack
24 Reviews

Dimmable A21 LED Bulb, 150 Watt Equivalent, Warm White 3000K, 2600LM, UL Listed, E26 Standard Base, Damp Rated, Super Bright Light Bulbs, 4 Pack

  • 💡【Technical Features】Dimmable A21 LED light bulbs 150 watt equivalent, 3000K warm white, 21W, CRI 80, E26 Standard base, turn on instantly
  • 💡【Energy Saving & Long-lasting】Save $213 on energy costs by replacing 150W with just 21W, average 15,000 hours, up to 13.7 years(3 hours per day)
  • 💡【Dimmable】Seamless dimming capabilities from 10%-100%. Compatible with most dimmers in the market. Ideal for kitchen, living room, bedroom, bathroom and other damp location
  • 💡【Eye-care & Eco-friendly】UL Listed! No flicker, no dazzle, no breakable parts, meanwhile very healthy to your eye. No lead or mercury, no IR radiation
  • 💡【What You Get】2 YEAR WARRANTY! 4 Pack 150 watt LED light bulbs, Excellent after-sales team and friendly attitude
  • 💡【Notice】Not eligible for shipments to California
 

Led Strip Lights, KIKO 32.8ft Led Lights Smart Color Changing Rope Lights SMD 5050 RGB Light Strips with Bluetooth Controller Sync to Music Apply for TV, Bedroom, and Home Decoration

  • Multiple Scenes Available: KIKO LED strip lights can be used for decorating your Dining room, Bed room, Upstairs, Kitchen, Porch, Computer desk, and Living rooms, especially great for Holidays and Events like Christmas, Halloween, Parties, and more. It is a great gift for your family and friends
  • Music sync : The lighting is synchronized with the rhythm of the music, colors and speed automatically adjusting base on the rhythm and melody. LED Strip Lights that Change Colour and Sync with the rhythm of the sound and music
  • Easy to use and install : Flexible ribbon for curving around bends,Plug and play without wiring. Self-adhesive back tape for secure and easy application.Led Strip Light 256 level RGB, Music rhythm is Local Music
  • Control Mode :Using app to control the light band, more intelligent, convenient,supply for IOS 7.0 version iPhone and Android 4.3 or above phone
  • Setup in Seconds, Simply stick the strip light on clean, dry surface and start to use. It’s not waterproof and is designed for indoor uses. Cutting design enables you to trim it via cutting mark and decorate as you like
 

Led Zeppelin IV

  • Amazon Prime Video (Video on Demand)
  • Bob Carruthers (Director)
  • English (Playback Language)
  • English (Subtitle)
 

Nexillumi 65.6ft LED Lights for Bedroom

  • 2 rolls of 32.8 ft LED lights, 65.6 ft in total
  • Remote and phone app control, the app "Ehome light" will be replaced by "illumi Home", and we no longer offer LED lights controlled by "Ehome Light" in 2021
  • Built-in mic that syncs with music beats
  • Easy to install
  • Color changing and dimmable

History of LED

The first devices

In 1907, at the Marconi Company laboratories, Henry Joseph Round discovered the effect of photoluminescence using silicon carbide (SiC) and a radio component. Exactly twenty years later, Oleg Losev published a theory in Russia, where he claimed to have created the equivalent of a rudimentary LED; although the publication was also published in the German and British Empires, for decades there were no practical applications for his invention.

In 1936, at Marie Curie’s laboratories, physicist Georges Destriau obtained electroluminescence (which he himself called “Losev light”) by encapsulating zinc sulfide (ZnS) in a container in which he applied an alternating electric field. Three years later, the Hungarians Zoltán Bay and György Szigeti patented a silicon carbide device capable of emitting white or white light tending to yellow or green, depending on the impurity present. In 1951, Kurt Lehovec, Carl Accardo and Edward Jamgochian understood for the first time the real functioning of a diode capable of emitting light, using silicon carbide crystals and as an electrical source a battery and a pulse generator, comparing in the following two years the results obtained with others obtained by varying the type of crystals and their purity.

In 1955, Rubin Braunstein, of the Radio Corporation of America, obtained infrared light emission from gallium arsenide (GaAs) and other semiconductors, such as gallium antimonide (GaSb), indium phosphide (InP) and silicon germanide (SiGe), both at room temperature and 77 kelvin. Two years later, he demonstrated that rudimentary devices could be used to communicate over short distances; such devices would then be used in optical communications.

In September 1961, at Texas Instruments, James R. Biard and Gary Pittman discovered that a tunnel effect diode with gallium arsenide substrate was capable of emitting infrared light with a wavelength of 900 nanometers. In October, they demonstrated the effectiveness of communication between this diode and an electrically isolated photodetector. On August 8, 1962, Biard and Pittman applied for a patent entitled “Semiconductor radiant diode”: a diode with a p-n junction and diffuse zinc, with the cathode spaced to allow an efficient emission of infrared light when the device is in the so-called direct polarization. After receiving applications also from General Electric, Radio Corporation of America, IBM, Bell Laboratories and MIT Lincoln Laboratory, the U.S. patent office gave the two inventors the patent for the infrared light emitting diode in gallium arsenide, the first real LED for practical use. Immediately afterwards, Texas Instruments launched a project for their realization and, in October 1962, the company announced the commercial production of LEDs with gallium arsenide crystalline structure capable of emitting light with a wavelength of 890 nanometers.

The first emission LED in the visible spectrum was developed at General Electric by Nick Holonyak Jr. who published an article on December 1, 1962. Having obtained an LED with emission in the visible spectrum, then the realization for the first time of an electronic component capable of emitting light perceptible by humans, made Holonyak to the public eye as the “father” of the LED. In 1972, George Craford, a former student of Holonyak, created the first yellow light LED and improved the light output of red and red-orange LEDs by a factor of ten. Four years later, T. P. Pearsall created the first high efficiency and luminescence LED, resulting in new semiconductor compounds specifically suitable for fiber optic transmissions.

Mass Use

The first commercial LEDs were used to replace some incandescent and neon lamps, for seven-segment displays, optoisolators, expensive laboratory equipment first and then to switch to calculators, televisions, radios, phones and more. Both infrared and visible LEDs were still extremely expensive, however, in the order of two hundred dollars each, so they were used relatively little. Starting in 1968, Monsanto Company was the first in the world to start mass production of LEDs in the visible, using gallium, arsenic and phosphor to make red LEDs suitable as indicators (arrows, numbers, etc.). Later, other colors began to be available and LEDs began to appear on various other equipment and devices. In the seventies, LED devices were produced and marketed for less than five cents each. These diodes were made from semiconductor chips manufactured with the planar growth process devised by Jean Hoerni at Fairchild Semiconductor. The combination of this process with innovative encapsulation methods enabled Fairchild, under the leadership of optoelectronics pioneer Thomas Brandt, to significantly reduce production costs, opening the way for all other manufacturers.

The first LEDs had a metal casing similar to that used for transistors, with a glass lens for the passage of photons. Subsequently, they switched to transparent plastic casings, of various shapes and often with colors corresponding to the color of the light emitted. In the case of infrared LEDs, the tint can be applied to achieve the opposite effect, i.e. blocking the visible light output. Specific encapsulations are then designed for the efficient heat dissipation of high power LEDs.

The advent of blue LEDs

The first blue-violet LED was made with gallium nitride (GaN) doped with magnesium at Stanford University in 1972 by Herb Maruska and Wally Rhines, PhD students in materials science and engineering. The previous year, a former colleague from Maruska, Jacques Pankive, together with Ed Miller, at the Radio Corporation of America, obtained for the first time blue electroluminescence through gallium nitride but with zinc doping: from it, then, they obtained the first gallium nitride diode to emit green light. In 1974, Maruska, Rhines and Professor David Stevenson received the patent for their invention. In the 1970s, no practical use could be found for gallium nitride diodes doped with magnesium, and research slowed down, only to return decades later with the development of blue LEDs and laser diodes.

In August 1989, Cree was the first company to market blue silicon carbide LEDs, so with an indirect prohibited band that makes the device very inefficient. Also in the late 1980s, key milestones in the epitaxial growth of gallium nitride with doping of acceptors brought optoelectronic devices into the modern era. On this basis, in 1991 Theodore Moustakas, of Boston University, devised a method for the production of high luminescence blue LEDs through a two-step process, obtaining a patent six years later.

In 1993, with a growth process similar to that of Moustakas, Shuji Nakamura, from Nichia, also produced a high luminescence blue LED. Both Moustakas and Nakamura received a patent and this generated confusion as to who was the real inventor of the blue gallium nitride LED, in fact Moustakas discovered his method first but his registration at the patent office was later than Nakamura’s one. The possibility of producing blue LEDs on an industrial scale opened up the development of new technologies and applications in the following decades, so much so that Nakamura received the Millennium Technology Award in 2006 and in 2014, together with Hiroshi Amano and Isamu Akasaki, the Nobel Prize for physics.

In parallel, in Nagoya, Isamu Akasaki and Hiroshi Amano himself worked on the development of a method to grow gallium nitride on a sapphire substrate, doped with acceptors, and on demonstrating the increased efficiency of LEDs made with this process. In 1995, at the University of Cardiff, Alberto Barbieri studied the efficiency and reliability of high luminescence LEDs with a structure formed by layers of aluminum phosphide, gallium and indium (AlGaInP) and gallium arsenide (GaAs), with a “transparent contact” that is a transparent film of indium tin oxide (also known as ITO, Indium tin oxide).

Between 2001 and 2002, methods of growth of gallium nitride on silicon were successfully demonstrated and, in January 2012, Osram found a way to produce industrial quantity LEDs in indium gallium nitride (InGaN) grown on silicon substrates. At least until 2017, manufacturers used silicon carbide substrates, although the most common one remained sapphire because it has properties very similar to gallium nitride, which reduces the formation of defects in its crystalline structure during growth.

At the end of the decade, Samsung and the University of Cambridge carried out research on gallium nitride LEDs grown on silicon substrate, initially followed by Toshiba, but then stopped the research. Some opted for epitaxial growth by nano-printing lithography, while others opted for multi-layer growth to reduce the differences between crystalline structures and thermal expansion rate, in an attempt to avoid chip breakage at high temperatures, decrease heat emission and increase light efficiency.

White LEDs and use in lighting

White light can be produced by using different colored LEDs together: one red, one green and one blue; however, the color quality will be low because only three narrow bands of the visible spectrum are used. A better method is to use a high efficiency blue LED, using the properties of phosphor to produce white light. In these devices, when the blue LED light hits an overlying layer of phosphor, doped with yttrium garnet, aluminum (YAG) and cerium (Y3Al5O12:Ce), it produces a yellow fluorescent light: the overall effect of blue and yellow light has a very wide bandwidth and is therefore perceived as white light by the human eye, with a higher color rendering index than white obtained by combining red, green and blue LEDs.

As with its predecessors, the first white LED was expensive and inefficient. However, the improvement in light output grew exponentially: the latest developments and research have been carried out by Japanese, Korean and Chinese companies, such as Panasonic, Nichia, Samsung and Kingsun. The trend of this growth is defined by Haitz’s Law (pictured), which takes its name from Roland Haitz.

The light emission and efficiency of blue-violet LEDs grew and at the same time the cost of the devices fell, allowing to produce white LEDs with relatively high power, potentially suitable to replace traditional lighting.

In the decade of the two thousand, experimental white LEDs produced 303 lumens per watt of electrical current input, with a life span of up to one hundred thousand hours, although those on the market stopped at 223 lumens per watt. Compared to an incandescent lamp, it was therefore obtained a substantial increase in electrical efficiency at the same price and, sometimes, at an even lower cost.